Dataset: German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) - Cumulation 1980-2016 (English version)


Literal Question

Description of variable:
Categorization of respondent's place of residence according to the "BIK"-index of municipalities and regions

Zone 1 - core of a metropolitan area <"Kernbereich">
Zone 2 - Conurbation area of increased density <"Verdichtungsbereich">
Zone 3 - Transitional area <"Übergangsbereich">

-34 Not included 1980-1992, 2002-2016
1 Up to 1,999
2 2,000 to 4,999
3 5,000 to 19,999
4 20,000 to 49,999
5 50,000 to 99,999 (zone 2, 3)
6 50,000 to 99,999 (zone 1)
7 100,000 to 499,999 (zone 2, 3)
8 100,000 to 499,999 (zone 1)
9 500,000 and more (zone 2, 3)
10 500,000 and more (zone 1)

BIK-Type of municipality and BIK-Regions

In the early 1990s, a revision of the concept of Boustedt-municipalities (bstdt7, bstdt10) seemed in order, because this categorization was based on the census data of 1970. Moreover, an equivalent taxonomy for the area of the new federal states in East Germany was not available. Based on data from the 1987 census, the BIK-Institute Aschpurwis + Behrens therefore developed a revised taxonomy of urban regions for the area of the old federal states (West Germany) – the BIK-type of municipalities and regions (gs05) – which takes into account the changes in residential patterns between the 1970ies and the late 1980ies. For this updated taxonomy, the indicators used to delimit classes have been revised extensively compared to the older Boustedt-system. For the area of the new federal states in East Germany, classification into BIK types of municipalities and regions followed the same principles as for West Germany. However, due to a lack of comparable data, classification proceeded from a different and partly reduced database. Similar to the Boustedt classification, categorization into BIK-regions is based on the number of residents in urban regions (zones 1-3). Outside these urban regions, classification was based on the respective municipality's number of residents (categories 1-4).
As of 2002, ALLBUS uses the updated BIK-Regions (bik) by 'BIK-Institut Ashpurwis + Behrens', which, for the first time, provide a taxonomy of regions based on a uniform set of data for both East and West Germany. Similar to the 'Boustedt-type of Municipality', classification is first based on the number of residents of a given urban region. Furthermore, this classification distinguishes four different types of region: core areas, conurbation areas, transitional areas and peripheral areas. Outside these urban regions, classification was based on the 'political size of municipality'.

For more information, please compare:

Kurt Behrens 1994: Schichtung und Gewichtung, in: Siegfried Gabler, Jürgen H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik und Dagmar Krebs (Hg.), Gewichtung in der Umfragepraxis, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 27-41.

BIK Aschpurwis + Behrens GmbH 2000: BIK-Regionen - Ballungsräume, Stadtregionen, Mittel-/Unterzentrengebiete. Methodenbeschreibung zur Aktualisierung 2000,., retrieved 19.05.2015.

Values Categories
1 UP TO 1999
2 2000-4999
3 5000-19999
4 20000-49999
5 ZONE 2,3;<100000
6 ZONE 1 ;<100000
7 ZONE 2,3;<500000
8 ZONE 1 ;<500000
9 ZONE 2,3;>499999
10 ZONE 1 ;>499999

Summary Statistics

Valid cases 14006
Missing cases 50678
Minimum 1.0
Maximum 10.0
This variable is numeric


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