Dataset: CSES Module 4 Full Release. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2011-2016)


The module was administered as a post-election interview. The resulting data are provided along with voting, demographic, district and macro variables in a single dataset.

CSES Variable Table
The list of variables is being provided on the CSES Website to help in understanding what content is available from CSES, and to compare the content available in each module.



Identification and study administration variables:

weighting factors;
election type;
date of election 1st and 2nd round;
study timing (post-election study, pre-election and post-election study, between rounds of majoritarian election);
mode of interview;
gender of interviewer;
date questionnaire administered;
primary electoral district of respondent;
number of days the interview was conducted after the election;
language of questionnaire.


year and month of birth;
marital status;
union membership;
union membership of others in household;
business association membership, farmers' association membership;
professional association membership;
current employment status;
main occupation;
socio economic status;
employment type - public or private;
industrial sector;
current employment status, occupation, socio economic status, employment type - public or private, and industrial sector of spouse;
household income;
number of persons in household;
number of children in household under the age of 18;
number of children in household under the age of 6;
attendance at religious services;
religious denomination;
language usually spoken at home;
region of residence;
rural or urban residence;
primary electoral district;
country of birth;
year arrived in current country.

Survey variables:

perception of public expenditure on health, education, unemployment benefits, defense, old-age pensions, business and industry, police and law enforcement, welfare benefits;
perception of improving individual standard of living, state of economy, government's action on income inequality;
respondent cast a ballot at the current and the previous election;
vote choice (presidential, lower house and upper house elections) at the current and the previous election;
respondent cast candidate preference vote at the current and the previous election;
difference who is in power and who people vote for;
sympathy scale for selected parties and political leaders;
assessment of parties on the left-right-scale and/or an alternative scale;
self-assessment on a left-right-scale and an optional scale;
satisfaction with democracy;
party identification;
intensity of party identification, institutional and personal contact in the electoral campaigning, in person, by mail, phone, text message, email or social networks, institutional contact by whom;
political information questions;
expected development of household income in the next twelve months;
ownership of residence, business or property or farm or livestock, stocks or bonds, savings;
likelihood to find another job within the next twelve months;
spouse likelihood to find another job within the next twelve months.


number of seats contested in electoral district;
number of candidates;
number of party lists;
percent vote of different parties;
official voter turnout in electoral district.


election outcomes by parties in current (lower house/upper house) legislative election;
percent of seats in lower house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election;
percent of seats in upper house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election;
percent of votes received by presidential candidate of parties in current elections;
electoral turnout;
party of the president and the prime minister before and after the election;
number of portfolios held by each party in cabinet, prior to and after the most recent election;
size of the cabinet after the most recent election;
number of parties participating in election;
ideological families of parties;
left-right position of parties assigned by experts and alternative dimensions;
most salient factors in the election;
fairness of the election;
formal complaints against national level results;
election irregularities reported;
scheduled and held date of election;
irregularities of election date;
extent of election violence and post-election violence;
geographic concentration of violence;
post-election protest;
electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign;
existing electoral alliances;
requirements for joint party lists;
possibility of apparentement and types of apparentement agreements;
multi-party endorsements on ballot;
votes cast;
voting procedure;
voting rounds;
party lists close, open, or flexible;
transferable votes;
cumulated votes if more than one can be cast;
compulsory voting;
party threshold;
unit for the threshold;
freedom house rating;
democracy-autocracy polity IV rating;
age of the current regime;
regime: type of executive;
number of months since last lower house and last presidential election;
electoral formula for presidential elections;
electoral formula in all electoral tiers (majoritarian, proportional or mixed);
for lower and upper houses was coded: number of electoral segments;
linked electoral segments;
dependent formulae in mixed systems;
subtypes of mixed electoral systems;
district magnitude (number of members elected from each district);
number of secondary and tertiary electoral districts;
fused vote;
size of the lower house;
GDP growth (annual percent);
GDP per capita;
inflation, GDP Deflator (annual percent);
Human development index;
total population;
total unemployment;
TI corruption perception index;
international migrant stock and net migration rate;
general government final consumption expenditure;
public spending on education;
health expenditure;
military expenditure;
central government debt;
Gini index;
internet users per 100 inhabitants;
mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants;
fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants;
daily newspapers;
constitutional federal structure;
number of legislative chambers;
electoral results data available;
effective number of electoral and parliamentary parties.

Variable Groups

Document Description

Full Title

CSES Module 4 Full Release. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2011-2016)

Study Description

Full Title

CSES Module 4 Full Release. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2011-2016)

Identification Number


Authoring Entity

Name Affiliation
Lupu, Noam Vanderbilt University, United States
Oliveros, Virginia Tulane University, United States
Schiumerini, Luis University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Pietsch, Juliet Australian National University, Australia
McAllister, Ian Australian National University, Australia
Bean, Clive Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Gibson, Rachel University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Kritzinger, Sylvia University of Vienna, Austria
Müller, Wolfgang C. University of Vienna, Austria
Schönbach, Klaus University of Vienna, Austria
Meneguello, Rachel Center for Studies on Public Opinion, Universidade de Campinas, Brazil
Dobreva, Alina European University Institute, Bulgaria
Fournier, Patrick Universite de Montreal, Canada
Cutler, Fred University of British Columbia, Canada
Soroka, Stuart University of Michigan, United States
Stolle, Dietlind McGill University, Canada
Linek, Lukas Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Groenlund, Kimmo Abo Akademi University, Finland
Wass, Hanna University of Helsinki, Finland
Sauger, Nicolas Sciences Po, France
Wessels, Bernhard WZB (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung), Germany
Rattinger, Hans University of Mannheim, Germany
Roßteutscher, Sigrid Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger University of Mannheim, Germany
Wolf, Christof GESIS Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany
Fieldhouse, Edward University of Manchester, England
Green, Jane University of Manchester, England
Evans, Geoffrey University of Oxford, England
Schmitt, Hermann University of Manchester, England
Van der Eijk, Cees University of Nottingham, England
Mellon, Jonathan University of Oxford, England
Prosser, Christopher University of Manchester, England
Chadjipadelis, Theodore Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Teperoglou, Eftichia Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Andreadis, Ioannis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Pang-kwong, Li Lingnan University, Hong Kong
Hardarson, Olafur P. University of Iceland, Iceland
Onnudottir, Eva H. Mannheim University, CDSS, Germany
Porisdottir, Hulda University of Iceland, Iceland
Marsh, Michael Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Shamir, Michal Tel Aviv University, Israel
Kedar, Orit Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Ikeda, Ken'ichi Doshisha University, Japan
Yamada, Masahiro Kwansei-Gakuin University, Japan
Maeda, Yukio University of Tokyo, Japan
Mattes, Robert University of Cape Town, South Africa
Mitullah, Winnie University of Nairobi, Kenya
Oyuke, Abel University of Nairobi, Kenya
Ikstens, Janis University of Latvia, Latvia
Beltrán, Ulises Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economica (CIDE), Mexico
Aguilar, Rosario Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economica (CIDE), Mexico
Komar, Olivera De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
Gegaj, Pavle De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
Be¿ic, Milo De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
Vowles, Jack Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Coffe, Hilde Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Aardal, Bernt University of Oslo, Norway
Cotterell, Gerard University of Auckland, New Zealand
Curtin, Jennifer University of Auckland, New Zealand
Bergh, Johannes Institute for Social Research, Oslo, Norway
Guerrero, Linda Luz Social Weather Stations, Philippines
Sulmont, David Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru
Martinez, Vania Instituto de Opinion Publica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru
Licudine, Vladymir Joseph Social Weather Stations, Philippines
Markowski, Radosław University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland
Cześnik, Mikołaj University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland
Grzelak, Paweł Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Kotnarowski, Michal Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Magalhaes, Pedro Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Costa Lobo, Marina Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Tiago Gaspar, Joao Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Comsa, Mircea Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Fesnic, Florin N. Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Gheorghita, Andrei Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania
Badescu, Gabriel Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tufis, Claudiu D. University of Bucharest, Romania
Stanus, Cristina Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania
Voicu, Bogdan Romanian Academy, Romania
Postelnicu, Camil Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Todosijevic, Bojan Center for Political Studies and Public Opinion Research, Serbia
Pavlovic, Zoran University of Belgrade, Serbia
Gyarfasova, Olga Comenius University, Slovakia
Bahna, Miloslav Slovak Academy of Sciences (SU SAV), Slovakia
Stebe, Janez Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Mattes, Robert University of Cape Town, South Africa
Shulz-Herzenberg, Collette Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Lee, Nam Young Korean Social Science Data Center, South Korea
Kim, Wook Paichai University, South Korea
Oscarsson, Henrik University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Lutz, Georg FORS & University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Huang, Chi National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Bureekul, Thawilwadee King Prajadhipok's Institute, Thailand
Albitton, Robert B. University of Mississippi, United States
Sangmahamad, Ratchawadee King Prajadhipok's Institute, Thailand
Carkoglu, Ali Koc University, Turkey
Aytac, Selim Erdem Koc University, Turkey
Howell, Dave A. University of Michigan, United States
Ilirjani, Altin USAID, United States
Donakowski, Darrell University of Michigan, United States
Hutchings, Vincent University of Michigan, United States
Jackman, Simon Stanford University, United States
Segura, Gary M. Stanford University, United States


Name Affiliation Abbreviation Role
CSES (Full Release, May 29, 2018, CSES
GESIS (Distribution Version, 5.0.0 (2018-05-29) and DDI documentation; GESIS

Date of Production


Place of Production

Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; Cologne, Germany

Data Distributor

Name Affiliation Abbreviation
GESIS Data Archive for the Social Sciences GESIS - Leibnitz Institute for the Social Sciences GESIS


Gesis Distribution Version 5.0.0 (2018-05-29), doi:10.7804/cses.module4.2018-05-29

Date: 2018-05-29

Type: CSES full release

Version Responsibility Statement

CSES (full release); GESIS (distribution version and DDI)

Bibliographic Citation

The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2018): CSES Module 4 Full Release. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5182 Data file Version 5.0.0, doi:10.7804/cses.module4.2018-05-29.

Topic Classification

  • Political Attitudes and Behavior
  • Mass political behaviour, attitudes / opinion
  • Elections

Geographic Coverage

  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Brazil
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Czech Republic
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Greece
  • Hong Kong
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Japan
  • Kenya
  • Korea, Republic of South Korea
  • Latvia
  • Mexico
  • Montenegro
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • South Africa
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Taiwan, Province of China
  • Thailand
  • Turkey
  • United States


The universe differs across countries. In most countries it includes eligible voters or residents aged 18 or older.

Time Method

2015-11-21 - 2015-12-30

2013-09-06 - 2014-01-06

2013-10-01 - 2013-10-29

2014-11-01 - 2014-11-19

2015-01-23 - 2015-01-31

Canada (2011):
2011-05-03 - 2011-07-05

Canada (2015):
2015-10-20 - 2015-12-23

Czech Republic:
2013-10-28 - 2013-11-14

2015-04-24 - 2015-07-07

2012-05-10 - 2012-06-09

2013-09-23 - 2013-12-23

Great Britain:
2015-05-07 - 2015-09-29

Greece (2012):
2012-10-19 - 2013-01-05

Greece (2015):
2015-06-12 - 2015-09-08

Hong Kong:
2012-09-13 - 2012-09-21

2013-05-04 - 2013-09-10

2011-03-06 - 2011-04-10

2013-02-18 - 2013-03-13

2013-07-22 - 2013-08-25

2013-10-21 - 2013-11-28

Latvia (2011):
2011-10-16 - 2011-11-11

Latvia (2014):
2014-11-07 - 2014-11-20

Mexico (2012):
2012-07-13 - 2012-07-19

Mexico (2015):
2015-06-20 - 2015-06-28

2013-02-02 - 2013-03-28

New Zealand (2011):
2011-11-30 - 2012-04-04

New Zealand (2014):
2014-09-23 - 2015-02-06

2013-09-12 - 2014-01-06

2016-05-07 - 2016-05-17

2016-06-24 - 2016-06-27

2011-10-20 - 2011-11-13

2015-10-17 - 2015-12-09

Romania (2012):
2012-12-15 - 2013-01-30

Romania (2014):
2014-11-20 - 2014-12-08

2012-12-21 - 2013-02-10

2016-10-13 - 2016-11-28

2012-03-29 - 2012-05-28

South Africa:
2015-02-02 - 2015-02-26

South Korea:
2012-04-12 - 2012-04-29

2014-09-15 - 2014-11-17

2011-10-24 - 2011-12-12

2012-01-15 - 2012-03-06

2011-07-03 - 2011-09-19

2015-07-18 - 2015-09-10

United States:
2012-11-07 - 2013-01-13

Data Collector

Argentina: MBC Mori, Buenos Aires;
Australia: Survey Research Centre Pty Ltd, Melbourne;
Austria: Jaksch & Partner, Linz;
Brazil: IBOPE Inteligência, São Paulo;
Bulgaria: TNS BBSS SEE, Sofia;
Canada: Institute for Social Research (Canada outside Quebec), Toronto & Jolicoeur & Associés (Quebec), Montreal;
Czech Republic: CVVM (Center for public opinion research) at the Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague;
Finland: TNS Gallup Oy, Espoo; France:
TNS-Sofres, Montrouge;
Germany: MARPLAN Media- und Sozialforschungsgesellschaft mbH, Frankfurt am Main;
Great Britain: GfK UK Ltd, London;
Greece: Artistotle University of Thessaloniki Laboratory of Applied Political Research, To The Point Research Consulting Communication S.A., Thessaloniki;
Hong Kong: Public Governance Programme, Hong Kong;
Iceland: Social Science Research Institute of the University of Iceland, Reykjavík;
Ireland: RED C Research & Marketing Ltd, Dublin;
Israel: The B.I. and Lucille Cohen institute for Public Opinion Research, Tel Aviv;
Japan: Nippon Research Center (Member of Gallup International Association), Tokyo;
Kenya: Institute for Development Studies University of Nairobi, Nairobi;
Latvia: TNS Latvia, Riga;
Mexico: CAMPO, S. C., Puebla;
Montenegro: De Facto Consultancy, Podgorica;
New Zealand: Centre for Methods and Policy Applications in the Social Sciences (COMPASS), University of Auckland, Auckland;
Norway: Statistics Norway, Oslo;
Peru: Instituto de Opinión Pública de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima;
Philippines: Social Weather Stations, Quezon City;
Poland: Public Opinion Research Center (Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej,CBOS), Warsaw;
Portugal: GfK Portugal - Metris, Lisbon;
Romania: KANTAR TNS (CSOP), Bucharest;
Serbia: Ipsos Strategic Marketing, Belgrad;
Slovakia: TNS Slovakia s.r.o., Bratislava;
Slovenia: CJMMK (Public Opinion and Mass Communication Research Centre), Ljubljana;
South Africa: Citizen Surveys, Woodstock;
South Korea: Korean Social Science Data Center, Seoul;
Sweden: Statistics Sweden, SCB, Örebro;
Switzerland: DemoSCOPE Research & Marketing, Adligenswil;
Taiwan: Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei;
Thailand: King Prajadhipok's Institute, Bangkok;
Turkey: Frekans Araştırma, Istanbul;
United States: Abt SRBI, New York

Sampling Procedure

Sampling procedures differ across countries. In most cases multistage stratified cluster sampling or stratified systematic random sampling was used. Detailed information on sampling for most countries is available in the codebook.

Mode of Data Collection

Individual level:
Modes of data collection differ across countries. A standardized questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews or as fixed form self-administered questionnaire.

District level:
Aggregation of official electoral statistics.

Country level:
Expert survey using fixed form self-administered questionnaire.

Availability Status


Access Authority

Name Affiliation E-mail address Universal Resource Identifier

Related Materials




Parties and Leaders

Primary Electoral Districts

Election Summaries

Study Designs and Weights









SPSS syntax



Other References Note

Further Remarks

Information on funders
These materials are based on work supported by the American National Science Foundation ( under grant numbers SES-0817701 and SES-1154687, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the governments of several German Länder, the University of Michigan, in-kind support of participating election studies, the many organizations that sponsor planning meetings and conferences, and the many organizations that fund election studies by CSES collaborators.

Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in these materials are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding organizations.

Further country-specific documentation
Field questionnaires, macro reports, and design reports are provided for download on the website
CSES Module 4 Election Study Archive

Data Files Description

File Name


Overall Case Count


Overall Variable Count


Type of File

Nesstar 200801


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