Dataset: European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008)


Moral, religious, societal, political, work, and family values of Europeans. Compilation of the data sets from 1981, 1990, 1999, and 2008.

The variable overview allows for comparisons of trend variables of the four EVS waves 1981, 1990, 1999, and 2008. In addition, comparisons of original question texts across the waves 1999 and 2008 are supported.

The overview can be found at:
Variable Overview


1. Perceptions of life:

importance of work, family, friends and acquaintances, leisure time, politics and religion (in Sweden: service to others);
frequency of political discussions with friends;
self-assessment of own health;
feelings of: excitement or interest, restlessness, pride because of compliments, loneliness, joy about completing a thing, boredom, feeling good, depressed or unhappy, managing everything, sadness because of criticism;
feelings of the respondent at home: relaxation, anxiety, happiness, aggression or safety.

2. Leisure:

way of spending leisure time and definition of leisure;
partners for leisure time: alone, with family, friends, at busy places, colleagues, people at churches or at sport and culture;
frequency of political discussions with friends and political opinion leadership;
memberships and unpaid work (volunteering) in: social welfare services, religious or church organisations, education, or cultural activities, trade unions, political parties, local political actions, human rights, environmental or peace movement, professional associations, youth work, sports clubs, women's groups, voluntary associations concerned with health consumption or other groups;
motives for volunteering;
aversion to people with other setting;
feelings of loneliness.

3. Work:

reasons for people to live in need;
importance of selected aspects of occupational work;
employment status;
general work satisfaction;
freedom of decision-making in the job;
importance of work (work ethics, scale);
important aspects of leisure time;
attitude towards following instructions at work without criticism (obedience work);
jobs scarce: give priority to nationals over foreigners as well as men over women in jobs, able bodied people over handicapped people and forced retirement for the elderly;
satisfaction with the financial situation of the household and expected situation in a year.

Work Environment:
work orientation and aspects of job satisfaction;
importance of selected characteristics of professional work: good pay, little pressure, job security, respectable activity, flexible working hours, ability to show initiative, a lot of vacation, meeting objectives, responsibility, interesting work, meeting one's own skills, nice colleagues, good career opportunities, serving society, contact with people, good physical conditions of work and weekend leisure, looking forward to work after the weekend, pride of one's work, family friendly, have a say, people treated equally;
perceived exploitation in the workplace;
general job satisfaction (scale);
satisfaction with job security;
use of paid days off: look for additional salaried work, training, meeting with friends and family, additional working against boredom, voluntary work, hobbies, running one's own business, relaxation.

4. Religion:

deism or nihilism;
opinion about good and evil in everyone;
feel remorse;
being worth risking life for: own country, life of another person, justice, freedom, peace, religion;
individual or general clear guidelines for good and evil;
religious denomination;
current and former religious denomination;
raised religiously;
current frequency of church attendance and at the age of 12;
importance of religious celebration at birth, marriage and funeral;
self-assessment of religiousness;
churches give adequate answers to moral questions, problems of family life, spiritual needs and social problems of the country;
assessment of the importance of religion for the future;
attitude towards the role of the Church in political issues (scale);
belief in God, life after death, soul, hell, heaven, sin, telepathy, reincarnation, angels, devil, resurrection from the dead;
stick to religion vs. explore different traditions;
personal God versus spirit or life force;
own way of connecting with the divine;
interest in the sacred or the supernatural;
attitude towards the existence of one true religion;
importance of God in one's life (10-point-scalometer);
experience of comfort and strength from religion and belief;
moments of prayer and meditation;
frequency of prayers;
approval or rejection of the single 10 bids by the respondents and most people;
supernatural experiences: feeling of connection with someone far away, seeing events that happened far away, felt in touch with someone dead, proximity to a powerful life force, change in the way of looking at life through a psychic experience;
relationship between the parents in the youth of the respondent;
connectivity of respondents with both parents;
strict upbringing by parents;
belief in supernatural forces;
ownership of and belief in lucky charms or a talisman (10-point-scale);
reading and consideration of horoscopes;
attitude towards: politicians who don't believe in God are unfit for public office, religious leaders should not influence how people vote, better if more people with strong religious beliefs are in public office, religious leaders should not influence government, nurse refusing legal abortion on religious grounds, time for prayer and meditation in all schools, prohibiting or allowing books that attack religion, church(es) do influence on national politics.

5. Family and marriage:

trust in one's family;
satisfaction with private life;
convergence of views of the partner and the parents with the respondent with respect to: religious and moral standards, social attitudes, political views and sexual images, ideal number of children;
sexual self-determination;
attitude towards single mothers;
enjoy sexual freedom;
enduring relationships are necessary to be happy;
homosexual couples adopting children;
live together without being married;
to have children is a duty towards society;
one's own decision to have children;
child's duty to take care of ill parents;
most important criteria for a successful marriage (scale: loyalty, good income, same social background, respect and recognition of religious background, good housing, political agreement, understanding and tolerance, live apart from one's in-laws, good sexual relationship, sharing household chores, children, discussion of problems, spending time together, conversations and share the same taste interests, same ethnic background, time for friends and hobbies);
accepted reasons for divorce: financial bankruptcy, illness, alcohol addiction, violence or unfaithfulness of the partner, sexual dissatisfaction, loss of love, non-understanding with relatives, childlessness, different personalities;
attitude towards childcare (a child needs a home with father and mother, women and men need children in order to be fulfilled, marriage is an out-dated institution, woman as a single-parent);
attitude towards marriage, children, and traditional family structure (scale);
attitude towards traditional understanding of one's role of man and woman in occupation and family (scale);
attitude towards: respect and love for parents;
parent's responsibilities to their children and the responsibility of adult children for their parents when they are in need of long-term care;
importance of educational goals (good manners, politeness, independence, hard work, honesty, feeling of responsibility, patience, imagination, tolerance and respect, leadership, self-control, frugality, thrift, perseverance, religious faith, unselfishness, obedience and loyalty);
attitude towards abortion;
justification of abortion for: health risk for the mother, children with disabilities, unmarried mother, lack of desire for children.

6. Politics and society:

most important aims of the country;
political interest;
political participation: signing of a petition, participate in boycotts, attending approved demonstrations or to wildcat strikes, squatting, violence against persons or things;
preference for individual freedom or social equality;
self-assessment on a left-right continuum (10-point-scale);
social preferences;
attitude towards the economic system, income equality, state enterprises, competition, performance orientation and the accumulation of wealth in a few persons;
economic liberalism;
attitude to welfare state, conservatism and the need for change of the economic system (scale);
personal characteristics (scale);
self-responsibility or governmental provision;
free decision of job-taking of the unemployed or no permission to refuse a job;
advantage or harmfulness of competition;
liberty of firms or governmental control;
equal incomes or incentives for individual efforts;
attitude concerning capitalism versus government ownership;
willingness to fight for one's own country;
the main aim of imprisonment;
assessment of the likelihood of war in one's own country in the next five years and expected changes of values such as: less emphasis on money and material possessions, labour, technology, individual, greater respect for authority, family, simple lifestyle and more power to local authorities;
attitude towards scientific progress;
trust in institutions (churches, army, education system, the press, unions, police, parliament, government, social security systems, political parties, large businesses, health care system environmental protection movement, justice system, European Union, NATO, UN);
attitude towards selected movements (environmental protection, anti-nuclear, peace movement, human rights, women and anti-apartheid);
satisfaction with democracy;
assessment of the political system of the country ten years ago;
assessment of the political system of the country as good or bad (10-point-scale);
preferred type of political system (strong leader, expert decisions, army should rule the country, or democracy);
attitude towards democracy (scale);
assessment of the observance of individual human rights in the country;
assessing the solvability of environmental problems, crime and unemployment at the national or international level.

7. Moral attitudes:

personal attitudes and rating of compatriots:
scale: claiming state benefits without entitlement, cheating on taxes, joyriding, corruption, prostitution, taking soft drugs, lying, adultery, bribe money, homosexuality, abortion, divorce, euthanasia, suicide, littering, driving under influence of alcohol, paying cash to avoid taxes, casual sex, smoking in public places, speeding over the limit, sex under the legal age of consent, political assassination, avoiding fare on public transport, experiments with human embryos, genetic manipulation of food, insemination or in-vitro fertilization, buy stolen goods, keeping of found money, fighting with the police, hit-and-run, threatening workers who refuse to join a strike, killing in self-defence and death penalty;

frequency of own alcohol consumption;
amount of own alcohol consumption compared to others;
potential risk from the consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholism;
attitude to punishment depending on the situation of the perpetrator or the victim (scale);
tolerance towards minorities - social distance (people with a criminal record, people of different race, left/right wing extremists, alcohol addicts, large families, emotionally unstable people, Muslims, immigrants, AIDS sufferers, drug addicts, homosexuals, Jews, Gypsies, Christians, Hindus);
students, unmarried mothers;
people of other faiths and cult members in the neighbourhood;
interpersonal trust;
mutual trust of younger people to older people;
estimation of people's fair and helpful behaviour;
internal or external control;
current satisfaction with life and five years ago;
expected satisfaction with life in five years;
perceived freedom and self-determination;
willingness waiver of income or increase taxes (welfare waiver) for the environment;
reduction of pollution as a task for the government;
insecurity of the people by talking about pollution;
fight against unemployment means to accept environmental problems;
environmental protection and fighting pollution are less urgent;
(only in Sweden: environmental protection versus economic growth, human and nature).

8. National identity:
geographical group the respondent feels to belong to (town, region of country, country, Europe, the world);
national pride;
fears associated with the European Union (the loss of social security and national identity, growing expenditure of the own country, the loss of power in the world for one's own country and the loss of jobs);
attitude towards the enlargement of the European Union (10-point-scale);
voting intensions in the next election and party preference;
party that appeals most;
preferred immigrant policy;
opinion on terrorism;
attitude towards immigrants and their customs and traditions (taking jobs away, undermining a country's cultural life, making crime problems worse, strain on country's welfare system, threat to society, maintaining distinct customs and traditions);
feeling like a stranger in one's own country;
too many immigrants;
important aspects of national identity (being born in the country, to respect country's political institutions and laws, having country's ancestry, to speak the national language, have been living in the country for a long time);
importance of alignment of income, of educational opportunities, securing the basic needs and recognition of others because of their performance;
interest in political news in the media;
give authorities information to help justice versus stick to own affairs;
closeness to family, the neighbourhood, the people of the region, to the compatriots, the Europeans and mankind;
concerned about the living conditions of elderly people, unemployed people, immigrants, sick or disabled people and poor children;
personal reasons to assist older people and foreigners;
party inclination and party identification;
regular reading of a newspaper;
television viewing;
(only in Sweden: television is main entertainment);
mental preoccupation with the meaning of life;
sense of meaninglessness of life, thoughts about death.

9. Environment:

attitude towards the environment (scale: overpopulation, disastrous consequences from human interference with nature, human ingenuity remains earth fit to live in, the balance of nature is strong enough to cope with the impacts of modern industrial nations, humans were meant to rule over the rest of nature, an ecological catastrophe is inevitable).

10. Life experiences:

the death of own child, of father or mother, the divorce of own child, of the parents or of another relative;
age of respondent when these events took place;
age at completion of education;
highest educational level attained;
employment status;
employed or self-employed in the last job;
profession (ISCO-88) and occupational position;
supervising function and span of control;
size of company.

11. Respondent's partner:

respondent's partner or spouse: partner was born in the country and partner's country of birth;
highest educational level;
employment status of the partner;
employment or self-employment of the partner in his/her last job;
partner's profession (ISCO-88) and occupational position;
supervising function of the partner and span of control;
duration of unemployment and dependence on social-security of the respondent and his partner longer than three months in the last five years;
number of people working in own department;
labour-union membership of the respondent or his spouse;
respondent is chief wage earner in the household;
employment status and profession of the chief wage earner;
scale of household income;
living together with parents when the respondent was 14 years old.

12. Respondent's parents:

highest educational level of father and mother (ISCED-Code);
employment status of father and mother;
profession of father and mother (ISCO-88) and kind of work;
number of employees (size of business);
supervising function and span of control of father and mother;
characterization of the parents when respondent was 14 years old (scale: liked to read books, discussed politics at home with their child, liked to follow the news, had problems making ends meet and had problems replacing broken things).

Sweden 1999 (additional WVS variables):
satisfaction with public servants;
economic aid for poor countries, decision makers preferred regarding peacekeeping, the environment, help for developing countries, refugees and human rights;
family savings during the last year.

age (year of birth);
born in the country of interview;
country of birth;
year of immigration into the country;
father and mother born in the country;
country of birth of father and mother;
current legal marital status;
living together with the partner before marriage or before the registration of partnership;
living together with a partner and living with a partner before;
steady relationship;
married to previous partner;
end of relationship;
number of children;
year of birth of the first child;
size and composition of household;
living together with the parents and other relatives;
living in a house or apartment;
age of completed education;
highest educational level;
employment status;
full time or part time employment of chief wage earner;
number of supervised people;
job profession/industry (ISCO88);
occupational status (SIOPS, ISEI, egp11, ESeC);
dependency on social security;
belonging to labour union;
employment of chief wage earner;
household income;
subjective assessment of own social class, socio-economic status of respondent;
region the respondent lived at the age of 14, present place of residence;
size of town;
region and size of town where the interview was conducted;
type of habitat, ethnic group, post-materialist index 12-item, 4-item.

Interviewer rating:
respondent's interest in the interview, his confidence and cheerfulness.

Additionally encoded:
interviewer identification;
date of the interview;
total length of interview;
time of the interview (start hour and start minute, end hour and end minute);
language in which the interview was conducted;
survey year.

Variable Groups

Document Description

Full Title

European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008)

Study Description

Full Title

European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008)

Identification Number


Authoring Entity

Name Affiliation
Gedeshi, Ilir Center for Economic and Social Studies, Albania
Zulehner, Paul M. University of Vienna, Austria
Rotman, David Belarus State University, Belarus
Titarenko, Larissa Belarus State University, Belarus
Billiet, Jaak Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Dobbelaere, Karel Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Kerkhofs, Jan Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Swyngedouw, Marc Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Voyé, Liliane Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
Fotev, Georgy Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Marinov, Mario Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Raichev, Andrei BBSS Gallup International, Bulgaria
Stoychev, Kancho BBSS Gallup International, Bulgaria
Kielty, J.F. The Gallup Organization, Canada
Nevitte, Neil University of Calgary, Canada
Baloban, Josip University of Zagreb, Croatia
Roudometof, Victor University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Rabusic, Ladislav Masaryk University, Czech Republic
Rehak, Jan Czech Republic
Gundelach, Peter University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Petersen, E. Aarhus University, Denmark
Riis, Ole Aarhus University, Denmark
Röhme, Nils Aarhus University, Denmark
Saar, Andrus SAAR POLL, Estonia
Lotti, Leila TNS Gallup Oy, Finland
Pehkonen, Juhani TNS Gallup Oy, Finland
Puranen, Bi Theseus International Management Institute, France
Riffault, Hélène Faits et Opinions, France
Stoetzel, Jean Faits et Opinions, France
Tchernia, Jean-François Tchernia Etudes Conseil, France
Pachulia, Merab Georgian Opinion Research Business International (GORBI), Georgia
Jagodzinski, Wolfgang University of Cologne, Germany
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter Berlin Science Center for Social Research, Germany
Köcher, Renate Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach, Germany
Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach, Germany
Anheier, Helmut London School of Economics and Political Science, Great Britain
Barker, David Great Britain
Harding, Stephen ISR, Great Britain
Heald, Gordon Gallup, Great Britain
Timms, Noel University of Leicester, Great Britain
Voas, David University of Manchester, Great Britain
Gari, Aikaterini University of Athens, Greece
Georgas, James University of Athens, Greece
Mylonas, Kostas University of Athens, Greece
Hankiss, Elemer Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
Manchin, Robert Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
Rosta, Gergely Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary
Tomka, Miklós Hungarian Religious Research Centre, Hungary
Haraldsson, Olafur University of Iceland, Iceland
Jónsson, Fridrik H. University of Iceland, Iceland
Olafsson, Stefan University of Iceland, Iceland
Breen, Michael University of Limerick, Ireland
Fahey, Tony The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Ireland
Fogarty, Michael The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Ireland
Kennedy, Kieran The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Ireland
Sinnott, Richard Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Whelan, Chris The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Ireland
Abbruzzese, Salvatore University of Trento, Italy
Calvaruso, Claudio University of Trento, Italy
Gubert, Renzo University of Trento, Italy
Rovati, Giancarlo Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy
Zepa, Brigita Baltic Institute of Social Sciences, Latvia
Alisauskiene, Rasa Institute for Social Research, Lithuania
Juknevicius, Stanislovas Lithuanian Institute of Culture and Arts, Lithuania
Ziliukaite, Ruta Institute of Culture, Philosophy and Art, Lithuania
Estgen, Pol SeSoPI Centre Intercommunautaire, Luxembourg
Hausman, Pierre CEPS/INSTEAD, Luxembourg
Legrand, Michel SeSoPI Centre Intercommunautaire, Luxembourg
Petkovska, Antoanela Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Republic of Macedonia
Abela, Anthony M. University of Malta, Malta
Cachia-Caruana, Richard Malta
Inganuez, Fr. Joe Malta
Troisi, Joseph University of Malta, Malta
Petruti, Doru Institute of Marketing and Polls IMAS-INC, Republic of Moldova
Besic, Milos University of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
Arts, Wil A. Tilburg University, The Netherlands
de Moor, Ruud Tilburg University, The Netherlands
European Values Study (Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Northern Cyprus)
Hagenaars, Jacques A.P. Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Halman, Loek Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Luijkx, Ruud Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Hayes, Bernadette C. Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland
Smith, Alan University of Ulster, Northern Ireland
Listhaug, Ola University of Trondheim; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Jasinska-Kania, Aleksandra University of Warsaw, Poland
Konieczna, Joanna University of Warsaw, Poland
Marody, Mira University of Warsaw, Poland
Cabral, Manuel Villaverde University of Lisbon, Portugal
Franca, Luis de University of Lisbon, Portugal
Ramos, Alice University of Lisbon, Portugal
Vala, Jorge University of Lisbon, Portugal
Pop, Lucien Romanian Academy, Romania
Voicu, Malina Romanian Academy, Romania
Zamfir, Catalin Romanian Academy, Romania
Bashkirova, Elena Bashkirova & Partners, Russian Federation
Gredelj, Stjepan University of Belgrade, Serbia
Kusá, Zuzana Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic
Malnar, Brina University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tos, Niko University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Elzo, Javier University of Deusto, Spain
Orizo, Francisco Andrés DATA S.A.; Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Spain
Silvestre Cabrera, María University of Deusto, Spain
Bush, Karin SIFO, Sweden
Lundasen, Susanne Ersta Sköndal University College, Sweden
Pettersson, Thorleif Uppsala University, Sweden
Joye, Dominique Swiss Foundation for Research in Social Sciences (FORS), University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Esmer, Yilmaz Bogazici University; Bahcesehir University, Turkey
Balakireva, Olga National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
Inglehart, Ronald University of Michigan, USA
Rosenberg, Florence Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA), USA
Sullivan, Edward Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA), USA


Name Affiliation Abbreviation Role
GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (archive release data set and DDI documentation), GESIS

Date of Production


Place of Production

Cologne, Germany

Data Distributor

Name Affiliation Abbreviation
GESIS Data Archive for the Social Sciences GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany GESIS


Version 3.0.0 (2015-10-30), doi:10.4232/1.12253

Date: 2015-10-30

Type: GESIS archive edition

Version Responsibility Statement

GESIS Data Archive for the Social Sciences

Bibliographic Citation

EVS (2015): European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008). GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4804 Data file Version 3.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.12253

Topic Classification

  • Society, Culture
  • Religion and Weltanschauung
  • Society and culture
  • Religion and values

Geographic Coverage

  • Albania
  • Armenia
  • Austria
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus Turkish Cypriot Community
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Kosovo-Metohija
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macedonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of
  • Malta
  • Moldova, Republic of
  • Montenegro
  • Netherlands
  • Northern Ireland
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • Ukraine
  • United States


EVS 2008: Persons 18 years or older who are resident within private households, regardless of nationality and citizenship or language. In Armenia persons 15 years or older and in Finland persons from 18 to 74 years were interviewed.
EVS 1999: Adult population of the country 18 years and older (no upper age limit)
EVS 1990: Adult population of the country 18 years and older
EVS 1981: Adult population of the country 18 years and older

Time Method

Albania (4th wave):
2008-07-10 - 2008-09-09

Armenia (4th wave):
2008-06-16 - 2008-09-19

Austria (1st wave):
1990-04-09 - 1990-06-01

Austria (3rd wave):
1999-08-01 - 1999-10-31

Austria (4th wave):
2008-07-21 - 2008-10-22

Belarus (3rd wave):
2000-03-01 - 2000-04-30

Belarus (4th wave):
2008-06-11 - 2008-07-31

Belgium (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Belgium (2nd wave):
1990-06-10 - 1990-06-27

Belgium (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-06-30

Belgium (4th wave):
2009-04-30 - 2009-08-02

Bosnia-Herzegovina (4th wave):
2008-07-12 - 2008-07-31

Bulgaria (2nd wave):
1990-08-01 - 1990-12-31

Bulgaria (3rd wave):
1999-06-01 - 1999-07-31

Bulgaria (4th wave):
2008-04-21 - 2008-06-15

Canada (2nd wave):
1990-05-01 - 1990-06-30

Croatia (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-04-30

Croatia (4th wave):
2008-04-30 - 2008-10-31

Cyprus (4th wave):
2008-10-25 - 2008-11-28

Czech Republic (2nd wave):
1991-08-26 - 1991-10-06

Czech Republic (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-05-31

Czech Republic (4th wave):
2008-05-05 - 2008-11-02

Demmark (2nd wave):
1990-04-01 - 1990-05-31

Denmark (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Denmark (3rd wave):
1999-04-01 - 1999-11-30

Denmark (4th wave):
2008-04-01 - 2008-09-15

Estonia (2nd wave):
1990-06-01 - 1990-08-30

Estonia (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-10-31

Estonia (4th wave):
2008-07-01 - 2008-08-31

Finland (2nd wave):
1990-04-01 - 1990-04-30

Finland (3rd wave):
2000-09-01 - 2000-10-31

Finland (4th wave):
2009-07-09 - 2009-07-15

France (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

France (2nd wave):
1990-06-25 - 1990-07-13

France (3rd wave):
1999-03-23 - 1999-04-10

France (4th wave):
2008-05-07 - 2008-09-04

Georgia (4th wave):
2008-08-21 - 2008-09-30

Germany (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Germany (4th wave):
2008-09-17 - 2009-02-10

Germany East (2nd wave):
1990-05-28 - 1990-06-16

Germany East (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-12-31

Germany West (2nd wave):
1990-04-23 - 1990-05-15

Germany West (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-12-31

Great Britain (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Great Britain (2nd wave):
1990-06-01 - 1990-09-20

Great Britain (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-11-30

Great Britain (4th wave):
2009-08-01 - 2010-03-10

Greece (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-06-30

Greece (4th wave):
2008-09-12 - 2008-10-26

Hungary (2nd wave):
1991-05 - 1991-06

Hungary (3rd wave):
1999-11-01 - 1999-12-31

Hungary (4th wave):
2008-11-26 - 2009-01-28

Iceland (2nd wave):
1990-04-01 - 1990-04-30

Iceland (3rd wave):
1999-06-01 - 1999-12-31

Iceland (4th wave):
2009-07-15 - 2010-03-15

Ireland (2nd wave):
1990-07-06 - 1990-10-26

Ireland (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 2000-02-28

Ireland (4th wave):
2008-06-07 - 2008-08-31

Italy (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Italy (2nd wave):
1990-10-26 - 1990-11-26

Italy (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-05-31

Italy (4th wave):
2009-10-02 - 2009-12-30

Kosovo (4th wave):
2008-07-15 - 2008-10-13

Latvia (2nd wave):
1990-06-01 - 1990-08-30

Latvia (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-03-31

Latvia (4th wave):
2008-06-01 - 2008-10-31

Lithuania (2nd wave):
1990-06-01 - 1990-08-30

Lithuania (3rd wave):
1999-11-01 - 1999-12-31

Lithuania (4th wave - part 1):
2008-07-21 - 2008-08-25

Lithuania (4th wave - part 2):
2008-08-03 - 2008-09-14

Luxembourg (3rd wave):
1999-07-01 - 1999-10-31

Luxembourg (4th wave):
2008-05-03 - 2008-12-15

Malta (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-05-31

Malta (1st wave):
1983-11 - 1984-02

Malta (4th wave):
2008-06-16 - 2008-09-23

Montenegro (4th wave):
2008-11-12 - 2008-12-08

Netherlands (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Netherlands (2nd wave):
1990-06-01 - 1990-09-30

Netherlands (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-08-31

Netherlands (4th wave):
2008-05-21 - 2008-10-21

Northern Cyprus (4th wave):
2008-10-28 - 2008-12-04

Northern Ireland (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-03-01

Northern Ireland (2nd wave):
1990-07-01 - 1990-09-30

Northern Ireland (3rd wave):
1999-07-01 - 1999-11-30

Northern Ireland (4th wave):
2008-09-26 - 2008-10-23

Norway (1st wave):
1982-11 - 1982-12

Norway (4th wave):
2008-04-07 - 2008-09-02

Poland (2nd wave):
1990-05 - 1990-06

Poland (3rd wave):
1999-02-01 - 1999-03-31

Poland (4th wave):
2008-06-27 - 2008-09-28

Portugal (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-12-31

Portugal (4th wave):
2008-05-26 - 2008-08-31

Portugal (2nd wave):
1990-05-11 - 1990-07-13

Republic of Macedonia (4th wave):
2008-07-03 - 2008-10-13

Republic of Moldova (4th wave):
2008-07-02 - 2008-10-04

Romania (3rd wave):
1999-07-01 - 1999-07-31

Romania (4th wave):
2008-04-24 - 2008-06-30

Russian Federation (3rd wave):
1999-04-01 - 1999-06-30

Russian Federation (4th wave):
2008-06-28 - 2008-07-26

Serbia (4th wave):
2008-07-14 - 2008-07-31

Slovakia (2nd wave):
1991-08-26 - 1991-09-08

Slovakia (3rd wave):
1999-06-01 - 1999-07-31

Slovakia (4th wave):
2008-07-14 - 2008-08-29

Slovenia (2nd wave):
1992-02-01 - 1992-02-28

Slovenia (3rd wave):
1999-10-01 - 1999-10-31

Slowenia (4th wave):
2008-03-27 - 2008-06-18

Spain (1st wave):
1981-03-01 - 1981-05-31

Spain (2nd wave):
1990-04-09 - 1990-05-14

Spain (3rd wave):
1999-03-01 - 1999-04-30

Spain (4th wave):
2008-05-28 - 2008-07-15

Sweden (2nd wave):
1990-04-01 - 1990-05-31

Sweden (3rd wave):
1999-11-15 - 2000-02-13

Sweden (4th wave):
2008-09-25 - 2010-01-10

Switzerland (4th wave):
2008-05-08 - 2008-10-06

Turkey (3rd wave):
2001-09-01 - 2001-10-01

Turkey (4th wave):
2008-11-26 - 2009-03-01

USA (1st wave):
1982-03-01 - 1982-03-31

USA (2nd wave):
1990-05-01 - 1990-06-30

Ukraine (3rd wave):
1999-12-01 - 1999-12-31

Ukraine (4th wave):
2008-07-12 - 2008-10-09

Canada (1st wave):

Sweden (1st wave):

Iceland (1st wave):

Norway (2nd wave):

Malta (2nd wave):

Romania (2nd wave):

Data Collector

Albania: Strategic Puls Research, Tirana;
Armenia: Marketing Communications, Yerevan;
Austria: GfK Austria GmbH, Vienna;
Belarus: Belarus State University, Center for Sociological and Political Research, Minsk; The Centre of Political and Sociological Researches of Belarus State University;
Belgium: TNS-Dimarso, Brussels; Nationaal instituut voor dataverzameling/Dimarso;
Bosnia-Herzegovina: PULS doo; Sarajevo;
Bulgaria: Institute of Sociology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences;
Market LINKS-Research & Consulting, Sofia;
Croatia: Market Research Agency 'Target';
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law, Department of Social Work, Zagreb;
Cyprus: CYMAR Market Research, Nicosia;
Northern Cyprus: Prologue Consulting, Nocosia;
Czech Republic: SC&C Ltd., Statistical Computations and Computing, Prague;
Denmark: SFI Survey, The Danish national institute of social research, Copenhagen;
Estonia: Saar Poll, Ltd., Tallinn;
Finland: TNS Gallup Oy, Espoo;
France: Institut de Sondages Lavialle (I.S.L.) Issy-les-Moulineaux; Research International;
Georgia: GORBI Gallup International, Tbilisi;
Germany: INFAS, Bonn; BIK MARPLAN Intermedia GmbH, Offenbach am Main;
Great Britain: Quality Fieldwork & Research Services, Birmingham;
Greece: Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, The University of Athens; Metron Analysis S.A., Athens;
Hungary: Szonda-Ipsos Média-, Vélemény - és Piaclutató Intézet, Budapest; Forsense Piackutató és Stratégiai Tanácsadó Kft., Budapest;
Iceland: The Institute of Social Research at the University of Iceland; The Social Science Research Institute, Reykjavík;
Ireland: The Survey Unit, The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin; TNS mrbi, Dublin;
Northern Ireland: Research and Evalutation Services, Belfast; TNS mrbi, Dublin;
Italy: Centro Ricerche Sociali di Moncomo G. e C. SaS, Milan;
Kosovo: Strategic Marketing d.o.o., Pristina;
Latvia: Latvia Social Research Centre;
Latvian Facts, Riga;
Lithuania: Baltic Surveys - market and public opinion research company Ltd., Vilnius;
Luxembourg: ILRES Market Research; CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange;
Malta: MISCO International;
Republic of Macedonia: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Faculty of Philosophy, Skopje;
Republic of Moldova: Institute of Marketing and Polls IMAS-INC Chisinau, Chisinau;
Republic of Montenegro: Strategic Research, Podgorica;
The Netherlands: Survey data, Tilburg; TNS NIPO, Amsterdam;
Norway: Statistics Norway, Oslo;
Poland: CBOS - Public Opinion Research Centre; Pentor Research International S.A., Warszawa;
Portugal: TNS Euroteste - Marketing E Opinião, Lisboa;
Romania: The Research Institute for the Quality of Life, Romanian Academy of Science (RIQL), Metro Media Transilvania, Bucharest;
Russia: ROMIR, Moscow;
Bashkirova and partners, Moscow;
Serbia: Strategic Marketing d.o.o., Belgrade;
Slovak Republic: TNS SK. S.r.o., Bratislava;
Agentúra MVK, Bratislava;
Slovenia: Public Opinion and Mass Communications Research Center, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana;
Spain: Data SA, Madrid; Metroscopia, Madrid;
Sweden: ARS - research AB, Stockholm; Statistics Sweden (SCB), Örebro;
Switzerland: M.I.S. Trend S.A., Lausanne;
Turkey: SAM Arastirma, Danisma ve Tanitim Hizmetleri A.S. and Bulgu Arastirma ve Halka Iliskiler Ltd Sti, Istanbul; Bogazici University, Istanbul; Birim Arastirma;
Ukraine: Social Monitoring Centre (NGO) and Ukrainian Institute for Social Research; Kiev International Institute of Sociology, Kiev

Sampling Procedure

EVS 2008: Representative multi-stage or stratified random sample of the adult population of the country 18 years old and older (except Armenia 15+ and Finland 18 to 74 years). They were supposed to have sufficient command of one of the respective national language(s) to answer the questionnaire. The net sample size (in the sense of completed interviews) is 1500 respondents per country, except Northern Cyprus and Northern Ireland (with 500 interviews each), Iceland (808), Cyprus (1000), Ireland (1013), Norway (1090), Finland (1134), Sweden (1187), Switzerland (1272) France (random sample: 1501, two additional quota samples: 1570), Germany (disproportional sample East: 1004, West: 1071). For country-specific in-formation, see EVS, GESIS (2010): EVS 2008 Method Report. GESIS-Technical Reports 2010/17. Retrieved from EVS webpage.

EVS 1999: Representative multi-stage random sample of the adult population of the country 18 years old and older. They were supposed to have sufficient command of one of the respective national language(s) to answer the questionnaire. With the exception of Greece, in all countries surveys were carried out by experienced professional survey organizations. The slightly different sampling procedures in each country are described in detail in the source book of Loek Halman, The European Values Study: A Third Wave. Source book of the 1999/2000 European Values Study Surveys. Tilburg: EVS, WORC, Tilburg University 2001. Retrieved from EVS website/Surveys/Survey 1999: EVS webpage.

EVS 1990: Representative multi-stage random sample respective quota sample of the adult population of the country 18 years old and older.

EVS 1981: Nationally representative samples were selected. The target number of interviews in each country was set at 1000, with an additional booster quota sample of 200 young adults aged 18-24.

Mode of Data Collection

EVS 2008: Face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaire. In all countries, fieldwork was conducted on the basis of detailed and uniform instructions prepared by the EVS advisory groups. The EVS questionnaires were administered as face-to-face interviews in the appropriate national language(s). As far as the data capture is concerned, CAPI or PAPI was used in nearly all countries. Exceptions are Finland (internet panel) and Sweden (postal survey).
The English basic questionnaire was translated into other languages by means of the questionnaire translation system WebTrans, a web-based translation platform designed by Gallup Europe. The whole translation process was closely monitored and quasi-automated documented (see EVS (2010): EVS 2008 Guidelines and Recommendations. GESIS-Technical Reports 2010/16. Retrieved from EVS webpage.

EVS 1999: Face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaire. In Iceland about a quarter of the respondents were interviewed by telephone. These were respondents in remote areas of the country.

EVS 1990: Personal interview with standardized questionnaire

EVS 1981: Personal interview with standardized questionnaire

Availability Status


Access Authority

Name Affiliation E-mail address Universal Resource Identifier

Related Materials




List of participating countries (EVS and WVS) (Table)

List of participating countries (EVS and WVS) (Table)

variable correspondence list (EVS only) (Table)

variable correspondence list (EVS only) (Table)


Method Overview - National Surveys (Table)

Information on the merged Integrated Values Survey 1981-2014 based on EVS and WVS data (Other Document)


(Variable Report)

Related Publications

Related Publications

The European Values Study: A Third Wave. Source book of the 1999/2000 European Values Study Surveys.
Halman, Loek, Tilburg: EVS, WORC, Tilburg University 2001.
See EVS webpage: here

Atlas of European Values: Trends and Traditions at the turn of the Century.
Loek Halman, Inge Sieben, and Marga van Zundert, Tilburg University.
Leiden, Tilburg: Brill 2012.
See EVS webpage: here

Publications using EVS data can be found in the EVS Repository.
The repository is an easy way to find relevant publications in the field of value studies. Moreover, it contains enhanced publications with direct links to the dataset, variables, and syntax codes of the concepts used.
The EVS Repository can be found at: EVS Repository.

Measuring and Comparing Values in 16 Countries of the Western World. Documentation of the European Values Study 1981-1990 in Europe and North America.
Halman, Loek; Vloet, Astrid, November 1994. Work and Organization Research Centre - Tilburg University
Research Unit on Workers in Development. Warandelaan 2 - 5037 AB Tilburg - The Netherlands. (Worc report 94.11.001)
See EVS webpage: here

Other References Note

Further Remarks

The EVS LdF is offered in two different versions:

The EVS Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008, ZA4804 contains de facto anonymised data, i.e. specific information of the EVS 2008 surveys is aggregated into coarse categories providing less detailed information on respondent's residence and occupation. It is provided for direct download through the GESIS data catalogue free of charge after registration.

The EVS Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (Restricted Use File), ZA5174 contains complete information, i.e. also data that could not be included in the EVS LdF ZA4804 because of data protection concerns. Due to the sensitive nature of the data, its usage is subject to specific contractual regulations. The contract allowing for off-site access can be downloaded in section 'Data and Documentation' of the study description.

Data Files Description

File Name


Overall Case Count


Overall Variable Count


Type of File

Nesstar 200801


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